people learned to raid in *rath, others after, others !efore"( 0-ossi, 12I then had to try and replicate this voca!ulary and medium differentiation in person which was much more difficult to do at the time, !ut I was a!le to glean information on something fascinating that I would lie to in)uire into further at a later time" #nce filming in the $irst 3erson Shooter game Battlefield 4 for my 5ideo Context -eport, I learned that words are shortened are changed ad infinitum in the &aming community to dictate an easier usage under 'duress"( %he duress they would !e under would involve dying in the video game or getting into a com!at type of situation" By shortening the words used, it allotted for a faster reaction time and an overall increase in performance" %his further allowed for a !etter showing of their sills in that universe which allowed for a !etter view of their performance which allowed for a !etter place in the social context of that universe as a whole"After this, I went !ac and tried to figure out the last part of my hypothesis that of which was which of these terminologies, if any, would !e used outside of the &aming context and done in a face to face atmosphere"I learned that there are many types of this language in every day usage, though not so much in a face to face representation due to the social stigma placed against it" $or instance, when texting on a cell phone one may type lol to imply laughing when one cannot facially do so through direct interaction, however, should one say lol instead of actually laughing in person it maes one seem prudish and una!le to fit in with the rest of that peer group" %hose words that were used in regular speech and were ept the same were really only used !y military personal or in special scenarios" %hese words included 'nade, fla, artificial intelligence, etc"( 0B6%, 12After compiling all my research and analying it, I learned of a great context to this community which not only ties it all together, !ut calls to )uestion the stereotype often portrayed to &amers as a whole"I had wondered if the &aming community was as divergent as other communities or if they were indeed reclusives who chose not to interact with others and only taled this way with their community in that gaming realm" As I found out, 0and what I had expected2 was that &aming is actually intricately connected to other communities !y having the power of worldwide connectivity at its fingertips, however, I also learned that a &aming Community can also !ecome more inclusive as a result as well" Examining the entire chain goes something to this effect" #ne
Aarons, D. (2012). Jokes and the Linguistic Mind. New York: Routledge.
Abrahams, R. (1962). Playing the Dozens. Journal of American Folklore75: 209–218.
Abrahams, R. (1970). Deep Down in the Jungle. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co.
Abrahams, R. D. (1974). Black Talking on the Streets. In Bauman, R. and Sherzer, J. (eds.), Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking (pp. 240–262). Cambridge University Press.
Abrahams, R. D. (1975). Negotiating Respects: Patterns of Presentation among Black Women. Journal of American Folklore, 88: 58–80.
Abrahams, R. and Szwed, J. (1983). After Africa: Extracts from the British Travel Accounts and Journals of the Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries Concerning the Slaves, Their Manners and Customs in the British West Indies. Hartford: Yale University Press.
Abu-Lughod, . (2000). Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Adams, K. and Brink, D. (1990). Perspectives on Official English: The Campaign for English as the Official Language of the USA. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Adero, M. (ed.). (1993). Up South: Stories, Studies and Letters of African American Migrations. New York: The New Press.
Adger, C. T. (1998). Register Shifting and Dialect Resources in Instructional Discourse. In Hoyle, S. M. and Adger, C. T. (eds.), Kids Talk: Strategic Language Use in Later Childhood (pp. 151–169). Oxford University Press.
Adger, C. T., Wolfram, W. and Christian, D. (2007). Dialects in Schools and Communities. 2nd. edn. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Adorno, T. and Horkheimer, M. (1979). Dialectic of Enlightenment. London: Verso.
Agre, P. E. (1997). Computation and Human Experience. Cambridge University Press.
Ahearn, C. (1983). Wild Style. Rhino Theatrical.
Ahearn, L. M. (2011). Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. 1st edn. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
Alexander, M. J. and , C. T. M. (ed.). (1997). Feminist Genealogies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures. New York and London: Routledge.
Alim, H. S. (2006). Roc the Mic Right: The Language of Hip Hop CultureNew York: Routledge.
Alim, H. S. (2011a). Hip Hop and the Politics of Ill-Literacy. In Levinson, B. A. U. and Pollock, M. (eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of Education (pp. 232–246). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
Alim, H. S. (2011b). Global Ill-Literacies: Hiphop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Literacy. Review of Research in Education35(1): 120–146.
Alim, H. S. and Smitherman, G. (2012). Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Language, and Race in the US. Oxford University Press.
Alim, H. S., Ibrahim, A. and Pennycook, A. (2008). Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language. 1st edn. London, New York: Routledge.
Alim, H. S., Lee, J. and Carris, L. M. (2011). Moving the Crowd, “Crowding” the Emcee: The Coproduction and Contestation of Black Normativity in Freestyle Rap Battles. Discourse & Society 22(4): 422–439.
Alleyne, B. (2002). An Idea of Community and its Discontents: Towards a More Reflexive Sense of Belonging in Multicultural Britain. Ethnic and Racial Studies 25(4): 607–627.
Alleyne, M. C. (1980). Comparative Afro-American: An Historical-Comparative Study of English-Based Afro-American Dialects of the New World. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
Alleyne, M. C. (1989). Roots of Jamaican Culture. London: Pluto Press.
Althusser, L. (1972). Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes toward an Investigation). In L. Althusser, Lenin and Philosophy, and Other Essays. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London, New York: Verso.
Androutsopoulos, J. and Scholz, A. (2002). On the Recontextualization of Hip-Hop in European Speech Communities: A Contrastive Analysis of Rap Lyrics. Philologie im Netz 19: 1–42.
Angogo, R. (1978). Language and Politics in South Africa. Studies in African Languages 9(2): 211–221.
Askew, K. and Wilk, R. R. (eds.). (2002). The Anthropology of Media. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Archambault, J. S. (2013). Cruising through Uncertainty: Cell Phones and the Politics of Display and Disguise in Inhambane, Mozambique. American Ethnologist40(1): 88–101.
Atkins, E. T. (2001). Blue Nippon: Authenticating Jazz in Japan. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Austin, J. L. (1961). Philosophical Papers. Oxford University Press.
Austin, J. L. (1962). How to Do Things with Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (Emerson, C. and Holquist, M., trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Baldwin, J. (1986). James Baldwin's National Press Club Speech (December 10). Available online at: ).
Baratz, J. (1973). Language Abilities of Black Americans. In Dreger, M. (ed.), Comparative Studies of Blacks and Whites in the United States (pp. 125–183). New York: Seminar Press.
Barnes, J. (1954). Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish. Human Relations7: 39–58.
Basu, D. and Lemelle, S. (eds.). (2006). The Vinyl Ain't Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture. London: Pluto Press.
Baugh, J. (1981). Design and Implementation of Language Arts Programs for Speakers of Nonstandard English: Perspectives for a National Neighborhood Literacy Program. In Cronell, B. (ed.), The Linguistic Needs of Linguistically Different Children (pp. 17–43). Los Alamitos, CA: South West Regional Laboratory (SWRL).
Baugh, J. (1983a). A Survey of Afro-American English. Annual Review of Anthropology12: 335–354.
Baugh, J. (1983b). Black Street Speech: Its History, Structure and Survival. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Baugh, J. (1987). The Situational Dimension of Linguistic Power. Language Arts64: 234–240.
Baugh, J. (1988). Discourse Function for “Come” in Black English Vernacular. Texas Linguistics Forum31: 42–49.
Baugh, J. (1992). Hypocorrection: Mistakes in Production of Vernacular African American English as a Second Dialect. Language Community12(3/4): 317–326.
Baugh, J. (1999). Out of the Mouths of Slaves. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Bauman, R. (ed.). (1992). Folklore, Cultural Performances, and Popular Entertainments: A Communications-Centered Handbook. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bauman, R. (2004). A World of Others’ Words: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Intertextuality. Malden, MA: Blackwell.