This organ donation research paper begins with a catchy introduction and ends with a logical conclusion. The main body includes three parts. The first part presents general facts about organ transplantation and its current problems. The next part provides the information about the positive effect of the commercialization of this medical service. The last part, on the contrary, shows the negative consequences of commercialization. The author analyzes both ethical and economical sides of the topic taking into account modern and potential tendencies.
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How Can Commercialization of Organ Transplants Affect the Amount of People Saved Due to Transplantation?
Medicine has had tremendous progress in its ability to save human lives. Transplantation of organs is one of such innovations that gave hope to millions of people. However, transplantation could be more effective, as currently, the rate of demand of organs is much higher than that of supply. Various initiatives have been talked through to resolve the issue, leading to the idea of commercialization of organ transplants as the ultimate solution. Currently, human organs can only be donated and purchased for free by those in need. However, the idea of commercialization lies upon the assumption that humans will be more likely to provide organs if they were paid for it. Therefore, more organs will be available and more lives would be saved. However, commercialization of organs for transplantation is a complex step that would lead to a variety of consequences, both saving more lives and reinforcing the inequality trends.
Commercialization of organ transplantation: current legal and ethical state of affairs
Commercialization of organ transplantation is arguably among the most complex and indefinite issues than human civilization currently faces, combining debates from ethical, legal, economic, and medical fields. Currently, in most countries, including the US, commercialization of body parts is prohibited, meaning that individuals have no legal right to buy or sell their own organs both when the individuals are alive or dead. In most contemporary countries, organs for transplantation are available only through non-commercial operations, like donating one’s organs after death. There are multiple state-level and international agreements that define the legal status of the human tissue, including the Human Tissue Act of 2004, which directly prohibits any form of organ trade (Hardcastle, Rohan John 126). Such legal position of human tissue is explained through a variety of arguments. First, the definition of a human body as a subject of property is considered as objectivation of people and contradicts the modern judicial interpretation of a person (Simmerling, Mary et al. 130). In other words, if our bodies are just about the same type of property as any other objects, then a human individual, being a combination of its organs, may also be considered as a property. Such statements contradict the modern liberal and humanistic ideological perspective of human development, leaving without any attention the ideas of individual value (not in a material, but rather in a spiritual way) and freedom. These claims are backed up by most of the contemporary religions that, however, do not protest against the voluntary donation of the organs for transplantation (Bruzzone, Patricio 1064). While there are some religious leaders and activists who claim the sacredness of human body should not be violated during life or after the death, Pope Benedict XVI, for example, openly supported the idea of free donation of the organs and said that he willed to do that after the death (Bruzzone, Patricio 1066). Still, most of the religions are extremely opposed toward the idea of commercialization of human organs, claiming that selling or buying our bodies for profit is an immoral and sinful act.
At the same time, other perspective claims that each individual has the right over his or her body and is able to do with it whatever thinks is better, as far as it doesn’t hurt other people. From this point of view, our body parts should have the same status of property that any other objects that we own. Moreover, if we can have a right to own objects that are not part of our organism – thus, objects that are external in relation to us – we should definitely have the right to own and use our bodies the way we want to. Especially such argumentation is powerful when taken into account the number of human lives that could be saved as a result of commercial transplantation because of the growth of selling initiatives. Arguments from both sides are strong and convincing, leading to moral dilemmas and an ongoing public debate in the variety of fields. While currently, most countries prohibit any forms of commercial distribution of human tissue, the discussion is far from getting closed, only growing in its significance and practical implications. To understand the efficiency and dangers of commercialization of organ transplants, it seems important to review both positive and negative potential consequences of commercialization.
Positive potential consequences of commercialization of organ transplants
Humanity is still experiencing a significant lack of organ donors. Despite the rise of the number of donors for the last few decades, in the US, “almost 17,000 persons were waiting for a kidney transplant in 1990. But this number grew rapidly so that about 65,000 persons were on this waiting list by the beginning of 2006” (Gary S. Becker and Julio Jorge Elı´as 4). The advances in surgical technology and financial affordability of the population to use organ transplantation have led to increases in both demands for the organs and the supply. However, the increase has not been balanced, as the demand has been growing far more intensively than the supply, leading to even more people who are waiting for a suitable organ for transplantation. This disbalance is only growing, leading to the need for reforming the system of organ transplantation. While the process of changing the value system of the population, causing more people to donate their organs for transplantation needs seems an incredibly slow and complex set of work on multiple institutional levels, commercialization of this process might be the most significant and fast solution. First, human organs would arguably have a high price, as for the consumers they would mean the ability to survive. Such feature would mean that for many people the motivation to sell their organs while being alive, as well as to agree for transplantation of their organs when their dead (with their family receiving the money) would rise significantly. Simmerling and colleagues suggest that commercialization of organs for transplantation would lead to as much as 100% satisfaction of the demand (Simmerling, Mary et al. 130). In other words, for every individual in need for an organ, there would be an organ ready for transplantation. Such high level of expectations, of course, does not include the issue of the financial ability of the recipients of transplantation to afford the operations. Still, it seems that thousands of lives only in the US could be saved, especially if the healthcare system would include the commercialized transplantation service and provide insurance for them.
Moreover, it seems that even now many individuals from the Western countries use “medical tourism,” when they visit countries like Pakistan, India, and Iran (where buying an organ for transplantation is legal) to get the transplantation (Sajjad, Imran et al. 752). These operations are incredibly risky and have higher failure rates because of problems with the quality of the operations and the organs that are being bought. Thus, it seems that there is a need for the international community to legalize the trade of organs while taking it under careful control, reassuring that every procedure is dealt with according to the law and medical requirements. The need for more human organs for transplantation is bigger than ever before and is still growing and commercialization is the only significant and quick way of saving thousands of people whose lives are at the stake. At the same time, such measure is the instrument for many people to support themselves and their families financially, proposing their organs both when they are alive and when they are dead. If such policy would receive careful and thorough plan for regulation on the international level, numerous individuals would benefit.
Problematic potential consequences of commercialization of organ transplants
Despite the optimism expressed above, there are multiple issues connected to other consequences of commercialization of organ transplantation. Of course, the potential of saving so many lives is quite astonishing, yet there is a need to consider the harm that the humanity will face as a result of such structural change. First, regarding those who sell the organs, it seems clear that the least secure and privileged groups would be more likely to sell their body parts than the privileged social classes. For poor classes, their body would be among the most profitable resources, while rich people would be among the buyers of this kind of service. Moreover, the more financial capabilities the person would have, the more chances he or she would have to receive the organs of the best quality and in shorter terms. As Simmerling and colleagues put it, “allowing people with financial means to move to the front of the waiting list is unfair to everyone else on the list who lack the means to jump to the top” (Simmerling, Mary et al. 133). Still, in a commercialized set, this outcome is inevitable. Thus, in a situation of extreme need, people would still be divided by their economic capacities, which means that even in organ transplantation process the economic inequality would spread. The argument that poorer social categories would receive the ability to gain economic power has been refuted in Goyal’s study of economic, emotional, and social consequences of selling organs in India, where these operations are not banned (Goyal, Madhav). As Goyal concluded, “selling a kidney does not lead to a long-term economic benefit and may be associated with a decline in health” (Goyal, Madhav 1589). In the Indian case, kidney sellers used this money to pay debts and take care of their families, but they were not able to make any structural changes to their low socioeconomic status. Thus, it seems that commercialization of organ transplantation is a step that would increase global inequality, spreading it into the essential sphere of human life – to the distribution of human body parts.
Moreover, such trend would only exist on the level of a single society. If the entire world commercialized organs for transplantation, populations from poor countries would highly likely to export their organs to the wealthy populations, causing growth in health inequality. The existing “medical tourism” would become a regular phenomenon. However, what is even more frustrating and dangerous, is that while theoretically commercialization would lead to 100% satisfaction of the demand, most of the people who need organs for transplantation might not afford this procedure. The reorganization of the entire concept of international legal system and insurance concerning human organs is an incredibly complex process that would lead to controversial results. Not only the demand would highly unlikely to be satisfied because of the high price of organs, but there might also be a serious problem of too intensive supply. People would sell their organs, which will be ready for transplantation, yet there will be no customers ready to pay the price. Many organs would be not used, with the majority of people stuck in the economic inability to purchase this service. Thus, the idea of commercialization of organs for transplantation seems far from resolving the issue of high demand for organs.
Commercialization of human organs for transplantation is still illegal in most of the contemporary countries, with individuals being able only to donate their body parts. While the introducing of human tissue market is a controversial affair in both ethical and economic measures, it is estimated that the demand for human organs has been rising for the last decades, meaning there have to be new transplantation approaches. Commercialization of human organs is one of the potential resolutions, hypothetically satisfying 100% of the demand. However, commercialization would mean that inequality in the world would only rise, while any individuals would simply be not able to afford the organs for transplantation. Although commercialization will surely save more lives, its negative consequences are arguably more damaging and unfair than the positive ones.
Hardcastle, Rohan John. Law And The Human Body. Oxford, Hart, 2007.
Simmerling, Mary et al. “The Commercialization of Human Organs for Transplantation: The Current Status Of The Ethical Debate.” Current Opinion In Organ Transplantation, vol 11, no. 2, 2006, pp. 130-135. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), doi:10.1097/01.mot.0000218924.04526.a4.
Bruzzone, Patricio. “Religious Aspects of Organ Transplantation.” Transplantation Proceedings, vol 40, no. 4, 2008, pp. 1064-1067. Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2008.03.049.
Becker, Gary S., and Julia Jorge Elias. “Introducing Incentives in The Market For Live And Cadaveric Organ Donations.” Journal Of Economic Perspectives, vol 21, no. 3, 2007.
Sajjad, Imran et al. “Commercialization of Kidney Transplants: A Systematic Review Of Outcomes In Recipients And Donors.” American Journal Of Nephrology, vol 28, no. 5, 2008, pp. 744-754. S. Karger AG, doi:10.1159/000128606.
Goyal, Madhav. “Economic and Health Consequences Of Selling A Kidney In India.” JAMA, vol 288, no. 13, 2002, p. 1589. American Medical Association (AMA), doi:10.1001/jama.288.13.1589.
Have you ever watched a great film trailer and thought, “I have to see that movie!”? A good trailer gives you the basic premise of the movie, shows you the highlights, and encourages you to want to see more.
A good thesis statement will accomplish the same thing. It gives readers an idea of the most important points of an essay, shows the highlights, and makes them want to read more.
A well-constructed thesis serves as a lighthouse for your readers, offering them a guiding light in the stormy sea of claims and evidence that make up your argumentative essay.
It will also help keep you, the writer, from getting lost in a convoluted and directionless argument.
Most importantly, a good thesis statement makes a statement. After all, it’s called a thesis statement for a reason!
“This is an interesting statement!” you want your reader to think, “Let’s see if this author can convince me.”
This blog post will dissect the components of a good thesis statement and will give you 10 thesis statement examples that you can use to inspire your next argumentative essay.
The Thesis Statement Dissected
Before I give you a blanket list of thesis statement examples, let’s run through what makes for a good thesis statement. I’ve distilled it down to four main components.
1. A good argumentative thesis is focused and not too broad.
It’s important to stay focused! Don’t try to argue an overly broad topic in your essay, or you’re going to feel confused and unsure about your direction and purpose.
Don’t write, “Eating fast food is bad and should be avoided.”
This statement is too general and would be nearly impossible for you to defend. It leaves a lot of big questions to answer. Is all fast food bad? Why is it bad? Who should avoid it? Why should anyone care?
Do write, “Americans should eliminate the regular consumption of fast food because the fast food diet leads to preventable and expensive health issues, such as diabetes, obesity, and heart disease.”
In this example, I’ve narrowed my argument to the health consequences related to a diet of fast food. I’ve also chosen to focus on Americans rather than everyone in the universe. (Because, as we all know, inhabitants of the faraway planet Doublepatty 5 require the starches and fats inherent in fast food to survive).
2. A good argumentative thesis is centered on a debatable topic.
Back in the ‘80s, teens loved to say “that’s debatable” about claims they didn’t agree with (such as “you should clean your room” and “you shouldn’t go to that movie”). This age-old, neon-colored, bangle-wearing, peg-legged wisdom holds true today—in your thesis statement.
Don’t write, “There are high numbers of homeless people living in Berkeley, California.”
No one can argue for or against this statement. It’s not debatable. It’s just a fact.
An argument over this non-debatable statement would go something like this:
“There are lots of homeless people in Berkeley.”
“Yes, there sure are a bunch of them out there.”
As you can see, that’s not much of an argument.
Do write, “Homeless people in Berkeley should be given access to services, such as regular food donations, public restrooms, and camping facilities, because it would improve life for all inhabitants of the city.”
Opponents could easily argue that homeless people in Berkeley already receive adequate services (“just look at all those luxurious sidewalks!”), or perhaps that they shouldn’t be entitled to services at all (“get a job, ya lazy loafers!”).
3. A good argumentative thesis picks a side.
I went into a lot of detail about the importance of picking sides in my post The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Picking a side is pretty much the whole entire point of an argumentative essay.
Just as you can’t root for both the Yankees and the Mets, you can’t argue both sides of a topic in your thesis statement.
Don’t write, “Secondhand smoke is bad and can cause heart disease and cancer; therefore, smoking should be outlawed in public places, but outlawing smoking is unfair to smokers so maybe non-smokers can just hold their breath or wear masks around smokers instead.”
A wishy-washy statement like this will make your reader scratch his head in puzzlement. Are you for smoking laws or against them? Yankees or Mets? Mets or Yankees?
Pick a side, and stick with it!
Then stick up for it.
Do write, “Secondhand smoke is just as harmful as smoking and leads to a higher prevalence of cancer and heart disease. What’s worse, people who inhale secondhand smoke are doing so without consent. For this reason, smoking in any public place should be banned.”
4. A good thesis makes claims that will be supported later in the paper.
As I explained in my blog post How to Create a Powerful Argumentative Essay Outline, Your claims make up a critical part of building the roadmap to your argument.
It’s important to first include a summary of your claims in your thesis statement. During the course of your essay, you will back each of your claims with well-researched evidence.
Don’t write, “Humans should relocate to Mars.”
This statement doesn’t include any supporting claims. Why should humans move to Mars? What are the benefits of moving to a planet without oxygen or trees?
Do write, “It is too late to save earth; therefore, humans should immediately set a date for their relocation to Mars where, with proper planning, they can avoid issues of famine, war, and global warming.”
This statement includes some thought-provoking claims. The reader will wonder how the author plans to defend them. (“Famine, war, and global warming can be easily avoided on Mars? Go on…”)
Now that you understand the four main components of a good thesis statement, let me give you more thesis statement examples.
10 Thesis Statement ExamplesFinally, I’ve come up with 10 debatable, supportable, and focused thesis statements for you to learn from. Feel free to copy these and customize them for use in your own argumentative essays.
There are a couple of things to be aware of about the following examples:
- I have not done the research needed to support these claims. So some of the claims may not be useable once you dig into them.
- Be careful not to use these thesis statements word-for-word; I wouldn’t want you to get in trouble if your teacher did a copy/find Google maneuver on you!
#1. Why Vaccinations Should Be Mandatory
Inspired by this sample essay on vaccinations.
Today, nearly 40% of American parents refuse to vaccinate their children due to a variety of unfounded fears. Vaccinations against diseases such as polio, rubella, and mumps, should be mandatory, without exception, for all children of the U.S. who wish to attend school. These vaccinations are critical to the control and eradication of deadly infectious diseases.
#2. Government Surveillance Is Harmful
Inspired by this sample essay on government surveillance.
Government surveillance programs do more harm than good because they invade civil liberties, lead innocent people to suffer unfair punishments, and ultimately fail to protect the citizens that they are designed to safeguard. For these reasons, programs such as PRISM operated by the NSA should be discontinued.
#3 Financial Compensation for Organ Donors
Inspired by this sample essay on organ donation.
People who sign up for organ donation freely give their hearts and other organs, but this free system limits the number of available donors and makes it difficult for recipients to access lifesaving transplants. Thus, organ donors should be financially compensated to produce more available organs and, at the same time, to decrease profitable, illegal organ harvesting activities in the black market.
#4. Our School Is Too Dependent on Technology
Inspired by this sample essay on technology dependence.
Our school’s dependence on technology has caused students to lose the ability to think independently. This dependence has caused a greater prevalence of mood disorders, memory loss, and loneliness. Educators should combat these issues by requiring students to participate in regular technology detoxes.
#5 School Officials’ Should Fight Cyberbullying
Inspired by this sample essay on cyberbullying.
Bullying has extended far beyond school and into cyberspace. Even though these acts of aggression take place outside of school boundaries, school officials should have the authority to discipline students who engage in cyberbullying without fear of reprisal. Doing so will help improve the online behavior of students and decrease incidences of cyberbully-related suicide attempts.
#6 The U.S. Media Should Update the Depiction of Traditional Families
Inspired by this sample essay on families.
The U.S. media depicts the traditional family as being comprised of a mother, father, and children; however, this notion of the traditional family is outdated and can be harmful to children who look to this as the gold standard. The U.S. media should, therefore, expand and redefine the definition of the traditional American family to include divorced and remarried parents, extended families living together, and families with same-gender parents. This will increase the overall sense of happiness and well-being among children whose families don’t necessarily fit the mold.
#7 Student Loans Should Be Forgiven
Inspired by this sample essay on student loans.
Crippling student debt is stifling the growth of the U.S. economy because it inhibits graduates from being able to spend money on consumer goods and home purchases. To alleviate this, lenders should be required to forgive student loans in cases where students are unable to repay their debts. Doing so would benefit the growth of the economy by increasing tax revenues, unfreezing credit markets, and creating jobs.
#8 Marijuana Should Be Legalized
Inspired by this sample essay on legalizing marijuana.
Marijuana has numerous medical applications, such as treating symptoms of epilepsy, cancer, and glaucoma. Legalizing the use of marijuana in the U.S. will greatly benefit the medical sector by giving physicians access to this lifesaving drug.
#9 Foreign Aid to Africa Does Not Work
Inspired by this sample essay on foreign aid to Africa.
Sending foreign aid to African countries is doing more harm than good, and it should be discontinued; the practice has caused African countries to become vulnerable to inflation, currency fluctuations, corruption, and civil unrest.
#10 China’s One-Child Policy Should Be Reversed
Inspired by this sample essay on China’s one-child policy.
China’s one-child policy was intended to help control population growth. Instead, it has led to unintended and negative consequences, such as a diminishing labor force, an aging population, the neglect of basic human rights, and an unbalanced gender population. To improve China’s situation, the policy should be reversed.
Any one of these thesis statement examples will get you started on the road to writing an awesome argumentative essay. Once your essay is finished, feel free to send it to a Kibin editor who can check it for grammar, sentence structure, and the strength of your thesis.
Good luck with your essay!
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