Dawes Severalty Act (1887) Essay
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
In the past century, with the end of the warfare between the United
States and Indian tribes and nations, the United States of America
continued its efforts to acquire more land for the Indians. About this
time the government and the 'Indian reformers' tried to turn Indians
into Americans. A major aspect of this plan was the General Allotment
or Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 which ended in 1934. The long term
effects of the program were not as helpful as many had planned it to
be, and in fact the effects of poverty as a result of this government
interference can still be felt by the tribes today.
The Dawes Severalty Act was passed by the U.S. Congress to provide for
the granting of landholdings (allotments, usually 160 acres) to
individual Native Americans, replacing communal tribal holdings.
Sponsored by U.S. Senator H. L. Dawes , the aim of the act was to
absorb tribe members into the larger national society. Allotments
could be sold after a statutory period (25 years), and “surplus” land
not allotted was opened to settlers. Within decades following the
passage of the act the vast majority of what had been tribal land in
the West was in white hands. The act also established a trust fund to
collect and distribute proceeds from oil, mineral, timber, and grazing
leases on Native American lands. The failure of the Bureau of Indian
Affairs to manage this trust fund properly led to legislation and
lawsuits in the 1990s and early 2000s to force the government to
properly account for the revenues collected.
The aim of the act was to encourage American Indians to take up
agriculture and adopt 'the habits of civilized life' and ultimately
for them to be fully assimilated into US society. With the grant of
land they also received US citizenship. The law broke up reservations
and encouraged private farms. Native Americans families received
individual plots of land, carved from reservations, as well as farm
equipment. These families were to give up their communal way of life
on the reservations and become independent farmers. But few Native
Americans profited from the Dawes Act; the greatest beneficiaries were
land speculators, who under the law were able to buy the best pieces
of reservation land.
The Dawes Severalty Act was an act to provide for the allotment of
lands in severalty to Indians on the various reservations, and to
extend the protection of the laws of the United States and the
Territories over the Indians, and for other purposes.
The bitter irony of this new act was that those who developed it
believed they were acting in the best interests of Native Americans.
Many of America’s leading religious leaders and progressive reformers
helped lead this assault to “kill the Indian, but save the man.”
Senator Henry Dawes sincerely believed that...
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Indian Territory Map
1887 Dawes Act
The 1887 Dawes Act was entitled an "Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations".
1887 Dawes Act: Severalty
The word "severalty" meant that the ownership of land in reservations would no longer be tribal or common, but would belong to an individual.
1887 Dawes Act Purpose
The purpose of the Dawes Act was ostensibly enacted to protect Native American property rights and welfare during the land rush that was anticipated when lands in Indian Territory were opened for white settlement (1889 Oklahoma Land Rush). However, the purpose of the Dawes Severalty Act was also an attempt to integrate Native American Indians into white society by changing their nomadic lifestyle to the static, settled western lifestyle of farmers and settlers.
1887 Dawes Act for kids: Background History
The Indian Policy of the United States government centered on the policy of allotment by which communally held Native Indian tribal lands were divided into individually owned private property. Native Indian lands were seized for settlement by non-Indians and for development by railroads. The 1830 Indian Removal Act had given the federal government the power to force the relocation of Native Indians, living in the east of the country, to territory that was west of the Mississippi River, referred to as Indian Territory, which had resulted in the horrific re-location of the Five Civilized tribes along the infamous Trail of Tears. Congress had created a massive Indian Territory, from Texas to the middle of the Missouri River as can be seen on the above Indian Territory map and about 90,000 Native American Indians had been forcibly relocated and obliged to merge with other tribes.
Purpose of the Dawes Act for kids: Henry L. Dawes
The Dawes Act was sponsored by lawyer and U.S. Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts and was passed on February 8, 1887. Henry Dawes also believed that the ownership of land played an important part in persuading people to accept the laws of the federal government. Dawes therefore suggested that Native Americans should be granted land in exchange for renouncing tribal allegiances. Senator Henry Dawes might have been well intentioned but he clearly favored the assimilation of the Native American Indian. Henry Dawes expressed his belief in the civilizing power of owning land and property was quoted as saying that that to be civilized was:
"...to wear civilized clothes...cultivate the ground, live in houses, ride in Studebaker wagons,
send children to school, drink whiskey [and] own property."
The Purpose of the Dawes Act for kids
The purpose of the Dawes Act were as follows:
Purpose of the Dawes Act: To break up tribes
Purpose of the Dawes Act: To halt the nomadic lifestyle of Native American Indians
Purpose of the Dawes Act: To integrate Native Indians into the lifestyle and culture of western Americans
Purpose of the Dawes Act: To enroll with the Bureau of Indian Affairs - later called the 'Dawes Rolls'
Purpose of the Dawes Act: To encourage Native Indians to adopt a settled farming based existence
Purpose of the Dawes Act: To reduce the cost of the administration of Native American Indians
Purpose of the Dawes Act: To settle and allot individual Native Indians plots of land
Purpose of the Dawes Act: To open the remainder of the 'surplus' land to white settlers for profit
1887 Dawes Act for kids
The info about the Dawes Act provides interesting facts and important information about this important event that occured during the presidency of the 22nd and 24th President of the United States of America.
Provisions of the Dawes Act for kids
The provisions of the Dawes Act were as follows:
Provisions of the Act: Native Americans registering on a tribal "roll" were granted allotments of reservation land
Provisions of the Act: To provide for the granting of landholdings to individual Native Americans, replacing communal tribal holdings:
● 160 acres if they are to farm
● 80 acres if they are to raise cattle
● 40 acres for any normal living purposes
Provisions of the Act: Each Native American Indian will choose his or her own allotment and the family will choose a land allotment for each minor child.
Provisions of the Act: The U.S. agent to certify each allotment and provide two copies of the certification to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
Provisions of the Act: Native Americans not residing on their reservation, or without reservations, will receive an equal land allotment
Provisions of the Act: A Secretary of the Interior will hold the allotments "in trust" for 25 years
Provisions of the Act: On completion of the land patent process, the allotment holder will become a United States citizen
Provisions of the Act: The Five Civilized Tribes and several other tribes were exempt from the act
1887 Dawes Act: Why did the Dawes Act fail?
The Dawes Act failed because the plots were too small for sustainable agriculture. The Native American Indians lacked tools, money, experience or expertise in farming. The farming lifestyle was a completely alien way of life. The Bureau of Indian Affairs failed to manage the process fairly or efficiently. Another reason why the Dawes Act failed was because Native Indians were suspicious of the federal government and appalled by previous relocation efforts. The Native American Indians who had refused to submit to previous relocations refused to register on the Dawes Rolls for fear that they would be caught and punished.
Effect and Significance of the Dawes Act
The effect and significance of the Dawes Act was that
● In 1889, the “Unassigned Lands” in Indian Territory were officially opened to white settlement
● Many elements of Native American tribal culture disappeared
● Whole tribes of Native Indians disappeared
● The reservation system was nearly destroyed
● Before the Dawes Act, 150 million acres lands remained in Indian hands - within 20 years, two-thirds of their land was gone
1887 Dawes Act for kids: The Dawes Commission and the Dawes Rolls
The Dawes Act was amended in 1891 and again in 1906 by the Burke Act. In 1893, Henry Dawes was appointed to head a three-member commission (the Dawes Commission) to the Five Civilized Tribes to negotiate agreements with the leaders of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes that would end tribal land ownership and give each member individual possession of a portion of the tribal lands. The Dawes Rolls list individuals who chose to enroll and were approved for membership in the Five Civilized Tribes.
1887 Dawes Act for kids - President Grover Cleveland Video
The article on the 1887 Dawes Severalty Act provides detailed facts and a summary of one of the important events during his presidential term in office. The following Grover Cleveland video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 22nd and 24th President of the United States whose presidencies spanned from March 4, 1885 to March 4, 1889 and from March 4, 1893 - March 4,1897.
1887 Dawes Act
● Interesting Facts about Dawes Act for kids and schools
● Summary of the Dawes Act in US history
● The Dawes Severalty Act, a major event in US history
● Grover Cleveland history timeline of major events
● Fast, Dawes Act about major events in his presidency
● Foreign & Domestic policies of President Grover Cleveland
● Grover Cleveland Presidency and Dawes Severalty Act for schools, homework, kids and children